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Alaska Blind Child Discovery

A cooperative, charitable research project to vision screen every preschool Alaskan

Amblyopia Risk Factors

Amblyopia is caused by disruptions in normal clarity, or ocular alignment (strabismus) or one or both eyes out of focus (refractive error). These are all called "amblyopia risk factors." Evidence and consensus have resulted in listed levels of the characteristic refractive (H53.02_), strabismic (H53.03_)and deprivational (H53.01_) risk factors that aid diagnosis and validation.
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2013 AAPOS Uniform ARF: cataract >1mm, strabismus manifest, myopia more than 3 diopters

Toddlers 12-30 months: hyperopia > 4.50D, anisometropia > 2.50 D, Astigmatism > 2.0 D

Preschool 31-48 months: hyperopia > 4.00D, anisometropia > 2.00D, Astigmatism > 2.0 D

Kindergarten 49-72 months: hyperopia >3.50D, anisometropia > 1.50D, Astigmatism >1.50 axial

2003 AAPOS Uniform ARF: Hyperopia >3.50D, Anisometropia >1.50D, Astigmatism axial 10° >1.5D obliq 1.0D, myopia more than 3D, strabismus: any manifest, media opacity > 1 mm, ptosis 1 mm marginal reflex distance, Va (AAP guidelines)


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