Manual or Central

Ottar(1, 2)VIPS(3), VOIC(4, 5), ABCD(6-8)

(+) Simple, sturdy, focus-in-dark, high predictive value possible (-) Polaroid film, needs interpret. no longer available..



(9), VIPS(3), ABCD(10)

(+)excellent centered red reflex and reading center (-) single image- desktop model too large , new hand held quick and portable


User-modified computer

(11), VIPS(3), ABCD(12 , 25,26)

(+) fast and child-friendly, rapid, convenient user output(-) windows computer and firewire cables


Manufacturer-set internal

VIPS(3, 13), VOIC(5, 14), ABCD(10, 15)

(+) Portable and sturdy (-) requires quiet, must request specific VIPS calibration, lacks ideal predictive value . limited support.


Internal Rx only

MEPEDS(16), VIPS(3, 13)

(+) reliable cycloplegic refraction(-) Expensive, close proximity to forehead, no pass/fail

Vision Research



(+) extensive Kindergarten experience (-) 35 mm film camera in frame



(18), ABCD(10, 15)

(+) original  (-) slow serial cables, Not currently available




(+) Hunter and Guyton birefringence foveation (-) available late 2017


Delta-Center Crescent/ central

ABCD(10, 22, 23)

(+) emerging, portable inexpensive cameras (-) few are simple-requires reader , led to Gobiquity.





(+) (-) no longer available

2WIN internal IR (25) adults and kids
Gobiquity internal crescent (26) smart phones, prevalent,
SPOT internal IR photoscreen (25, 26) from Pediavision- now Welch Allyn



1.   Ottar WL, Scott WE, Holgado SI. Photoscreening for amblyogenic factors. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1995;32:289-295.

2.   Donahue SP, Johnson TM, Ottar W, Scott WE. Sensitivity of photoscreening to detect high-magnitude amblyogenic factors. J AAPOS 2002;6(2):86-91.

3.   VIPS. Comparison of preschool vision screening tests as administered by licensed eye care professionals in the vision in preschoolers study. Ophthalmology 2004;111(4):637-650.

4.   Donahue SP, Baker JD, Scott WE, Rychwalski P, Neely DE, Tong P, et al. Lions Clubs International Foundation Core Four Photoscreening: results from 17 programs and 400,000 preschool children. J AAPOS 2006;10(1):44-48.

5.   Hudson A, Donahue S. Review of results of pre-school vision screening. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005;46:Eabstract 686.

6.   Arnold RW, Donahue SP. The yield and challenges of charitable state-wide photoscreening. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q 2006;21(2):93-100.

7.   Arnold RW. Highly specific photoscreening at the Alaska State Fair: Valid Alaska Blind Child Discovery photoscreening and interpretation. Alaska Med 2003;45(2):34-40.

8.   Arnold RW, Stange CA, Ryan C. The compared predictive value of Bruckner, acuity and strabismus from pediatric referrals. Am Orthopt J 2006;56(1):15-21.

9.   Kennedy R, Thomas D. Evaluation of the iScreen digital screening system for amblyogenic factors. Can J Ophthalmol 2000;35(5):258-262.

10.  Kovtoun TA, Arnold RW. Calibration of photoscreeners for single-subject, contact-induced hyperopic anisometropia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2004;41(3):150-8.

11.  Hunt OA, Wolffsohn JS, Gilmartin B. Evaluation of the measurement of refractive error by the PowerRefractor: a remote, continuous and binocular measurement system of oculomotor function. Br J Ophthalmol 2003;87(12):1504-8.

12.  Clausen MM, Arnold RW. Pediatric Eye/Vision Screening: Referral Criteria for the PediaVision PlusOptix S04 Photoscreener Compared to Visual Acuity & Digital Photoscreening: “Kindergarten Computer Photoscreening”. Binoc Vis and Strabismus Quart 2007;22(2):83-89.

13.  VIPS, Dobson V, Quinn G, Kulp MT, Cyert L, Ciner EB, et al. Preschool vision screening tests administered by nurse screeners compared with lay screeners in the Vision in Preschoolers Study. IOVS 2005;46:2639-2648.

14.  Rowatt AJ, Donahue SP, Crosby C, Hudson AC, Simon S, Emmons K. Field evaluation of the Welch Allyn SureSight vision screener: incorporating the vision in preschoolers study recommendations. J Aapos 2007;11(3):243-8.

15.  Lang DM, Arnold AW, Leman RE, Arnold RW. Validated portable pediatric vision screening in the Alaska Bush: A VIPS-like study in the Koyukon. Alaska Med 2007;49(1):2-13.

16.  MEPEDS, Borchert M, Wang Y, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter S, Deneen J, et al. Testability of the Retinomax Autorefractor and IOLMaster in Preschool Children The Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology 2007.

17.  Morgan KS, Kennemer JC. Off-axis photorefractive eye screening in children. J Cataract Refract Surg 1997;23(3):423-8.

18.  Granet D, Hoover A, Smith A, Brown S, Bartsch D-U, Brody B. A new objective digital computerized vision screening system. JPOS 1999;36(5):251-256.

19.  Hunter DG, Nassif DS, Piskun NV, Winsor R, Gramatikov BI, Guyton DL. Pediatric Vision Screener 1: instrument design and operation. J Biomed Opt 2004;9(6):1363-1368.

20.  Hunter DG, Nusz KJ, Gandhi NK, Quraishi IH, Gramatikov BI, Guyton DL. Automated detection of ocular focus. J Biomed Opt 2004;9(5):1103-9.

21.  Hunter DG, Piskun NV, Guyton DL, Gramatikov BI, Nassif DS. Clinical performance of the Pediatric Vision Screener. J AAPOS 2004;8(1):107 (abstract).

22.  Leman RE, Clausen MM, Bates J, Stark L, Arnold KK, Arnold RW. A comparison of patched HOTV visual acuity and photoscreening. J Sch Nurs 2006;22(4):237-243.

23.  Arnold RW, Clausen M, Ryan H, Leman RE, Armitage D. Predictive Value of Inexpensive Digital Eye and Vision Photoscreening: "PPV of ABCD". Binocul Vis Strabismus Q 2007;22(3):148-52.

24.  Atkinson J, Braddick O, Nardini M, Anker S. Infant hyperopia: detection, distribution, changes and correlates-outcomes from the cambridge infant screening programs. Optom Vis Sci 2007;84(2):84-96

25. Kirk S, Armitage MD, Dunn S, Arnold RW: Calibration and Validation of the 2WIN Photoscreener Compared to the PlusoptiX S12 and the SPOT. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2014, 51(5):1-4.

26. Arnold RW, Armitage MD: Performance of four new photoscreeners on pediatric patients with high risk amblyopia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2014, 51(1):46-52.


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